Open Access Journals

Title : A Study on clinical evaluation and prescribing patter of drugs used in schizophrenia patients
Authors : Swarajyalaxmi S.,P. Kranthi Raju

The prospective observational study conducted at Swasthik Samalochana Hospital, Warangal during February2013-July 2013. The study enrolled 150 in-patients and out-patients with Schizophrenia were included in the study who met inclusion criteria, after obtaining their informed consent. In 150 Patients in the Psychiatry clinic were characterized into based on predominant symptoms abnormal behavior, Hallucinations. In Psychological patients 51% males and 48% females were suffering schizophrenia disorder and various causes are 43.3% of family history, 12.6% of alcoholic, 6.6% family problems, 7.3% of thyroid disorders, 1.3% of post-menopausal problems. In this study nearly 50% of the patients had 3 risk factors primarily like family history, alcohol, financial problems. The necessity of patient counseling by a clinical pharmacist plays a major role in educational interventions and healthy life style modifications were an essential part in the prevention of schizophrenia and different psychological disorders of central nervous system. Abnormal behaviour, hallucinations and aggressive are the most predominant symptoms in this study.

Keywords : Schizophrenia , hallucinations , psychological patients , psychiatry clinic
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Title : Assessment of Heavy Metals Content and Their Effects on Toxicity of Acmella Uliginosa Sw.
Authors : Latifou Lagnika,Toussaint Sourou Odjougbele,Anatole Laleye,Ambaliou Sanni

The use of medicinal plants has increased in recent decades due to their affordability and especially because of the assumption that natural remedies are safe. Some medicinal plants are used as leafy vegetable. In Bénin, Acmella uliginosa is one of these medicinal plants used as green leafy vegetable. Unfortunately, they are contaminated by environmental and industrial waste such as heavy metals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Mn and Zn) contents of Acmella uliginosa, harvested in Cotonou (CAU) and Pobè (PAU) and to assess and compare the oral acute toxicity of the two samples. The heavy metals content was assessed by anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry method. The oral acute toxicity of aqueous extracts was evaluated following the guidelines N° 423 of the Organization of Cooperation for Economic Development. The phytochemical study was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. The heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of arsenic, lead, mercury, copper, manganese, and zinc in Cotonou sample while only zinc, manganese and copper are present in sample collected in Pobè. The heavy metals concentrations range from 0.028 ± 0.007 to 0.108 ± 0.052. Cadmium is absent in studied samples. At a dose of 2000mg/kg body weight, no adverse effects were recorded in Pobè sample in contrary to sample collected at Cotonou. The results showed that Acmella uliginosa harvested in Pobé (PAU) does not contained toxic heavy metals while sample from Cotonou (CAU) contained various heavy metals. Aqueous extract of PAU has no toxicity effect in contrary to Cotonou sample. The toxicity of A. ulignosa collected in Cotonou could be due the presence of heavy metals.

Keywords : heavy metals , Acmella uliginosa , acute toxicity
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Title : Toxicological effect of aqueous extracts of Croton lobatus L. and Schrankia leptocarpa L. in rats model
Authors : Latifou Lagnika,Mounirou Tchachedre,Anatole Laleye,Ambaliou Sanni

In a preliminary evaluation of ethnobotanically selected Beninese medicinal plants for their pharmacological activity, Croton lobatus L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Schrankia leptocarpa (Mimosaceae) showed interesting activities against Plasmodium and microbial strains. Considering these biological activities and the extensive use of these plants in traditional medicine, the toxicological profile of their aqueous extracts was assessed using oral acute toxicity in the rat model. Acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of tested plants was assessed at a dose of 2000 mg/kg as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, guideline n° 423. The rats were observed for signs of toxicity or death after administration of extracts. Distilled water was used for control rats. Blood samples were collected and used to evaluate biochemistry and hematology parameters. Histopathological evaluation was also done on liver and kidney. The results revealed that all tested animals were physically active during the test. No signs of toxicity or morbidity in rats treated with extracts were observed. There were no significant variations in the biochemical and hematological parameters between rats treated with aqueous extract of Schrankia leptocarapa and those received distilled water. A significant decrease of serum alanine aminotransferase and Creatinine (P = 0.01) level was observed in rats treated with aqueous extract of Croton lobatus while a significantly increased level of RBC (P = 0.04) and Hematocrit (P = 0.01). Histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections of rats treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extracts of Croton lobatus, Schrankia leptocarpa did not show any changes when compare to control rats. These results indicate that the oral administration of aqueous extracts (decoction) of Croton lobatus and Schrankia leptocarpa did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats.

Keywords : Biochemical , heamatological , histopathology , toxicity , Croton lobatus , Schrankia leptocarpa ,
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Title : Study the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn and microbial quality in some kinds of candy
Authors : Amjad Turkey,Ithar Kamil Al-Mayaly

Twenty samples of candy sweet were related to Turkish and china's companies collected from local Iraqi markets to measure the concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb , Ni and Zn) , also evaluate the microbial quality includes: bacteria and fungi in these tested products. The results revealed that most of studied samples do not exceed the acceptable values were proposed from both WHO and Iraqi standards except the samples N and T. The same results were recorded for Pb concentrations except the J, L and S samples which recorded 0.081,0.071 and 0.092 ppm , respectively. The concentrations of Ni recorded 0.03,0.05,nil,nil,0.06 and 0.01 ppm , respectively in the samples F,I,L,R and 20.The previous values less than the acceptable limits but other exceed thes values, while the samples do not recorded values that exceed the acceptable limits of Zn in WHO or Iraqi standards. Bacterial growth was recognize in the samples A,C,I,J,L,O,P,Q and R with numbers 46,9,31,11,1,11,24,19 and CFU\g , respectively. Also , yeast found in the following studied samples F,G,J,L,M,N and T, respectively. but do not recorded in other samples, while molds were founding with the following numbers 1,34,39,11,17,7,16,17,9,6,25,13,29 and 8 CFU\ g in the samples A,B,C,D,E,G,I,J,K,N,O,P,Q and R, respectively . According to the previous results, it can conclude that the tested samples of candy not suitable for healthy use by children.

Keywords : food contamination , heavy metals , microbial contamination of food
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Title : Phytochemical screening and bioevaluation of medicinal plant Stachytarpheta indica(L.)Vahl.
Authors : Sunita Bhatnagar,Sudeep Ranjan Sahoo,Rashmi Ranjan Dash

Leaf and stem solvent extracts of Stachytarpheta indica were subjected to phytochemical analysis, cytotoxic activity and their antioxidant potential. Both the extracts were rich in phytochemicals like alkaloid, saponins, tannins and phlobotanins. Besides this both the samples were moderate in carbohydrates but rich in protein content. Extracts depicted mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp mortality assay and good antioxidant activity in DPPH assay.

Keywords : Stachytarpheta indica , antioxidant , cytotoxic , alkaloid , saponins , tannins and phlobotanins
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Title : Toxicity Analysis of different medicinal plant extracts in Swiss Albino Mice
Authors : jayachitra A,gopal P,rajalakshmi A,krithiga N

Plants and their derivatives played a key role in world health and have long been known to possess biological activity. The importance of biological evaluations of plants derived agents used in the treatment of various diseases. The data of the acute toxicity studies (oral) on medicinal plants obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for use in the development of pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to study the effects of repeated dosage of two concentration of plant extracts such as 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were administered to Swiss albino mice daily for 15 days (orally) to check the safety profile of plant extracts. Mice were randomly selected and each group contains three animals, and analyse the physical parameters, biochemical parameters and liver toxicity were studied at the end of the experiment and analyse the histopathological studies to done for 400mg/kg of group animals assess any organ specific toxicity. From the study there was no changes were observed in liver section when compared with treated and control groups.

Keywords : Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Swiss Albino Mice , AST , ALT , Histopathology
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Title : Gymnema sylvestre – A Key for Diabetes Management – A Review
Authors : Subramaniyan Vijayakumar,Srinivasan Prabhu

Traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60 per cent world population. Diabetes is an important human ailment officiating many from various walk of life in different countries including India. It providing to a major health problem, especially in the urban area: Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a herb distributed throughout the world. The leaves of the plant are widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as diuretic in India proprietary medicine. G. sylvestre, an Ayurvedic herb, came to be known as “destroyer of sugar” because, in ancient times, Ayurvedia physicians observed that chewing a few leaves of G. sylvestre suppressed the taste of sugar. It is used totally all over India for controlling blood sugar. Several bio-active compounds have been isolated from the herb for diabetes care. It is believed to be used in dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, haemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A scrutiny of literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti diabetic, antiobesity, hypolipidaemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory. The present review is an attempton various ethanobotanical and traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological approaches of G. sylvestre .

Keywords : Gymnema sylvestre , Ethanobotanical uses , phytochemistry , pharmacological activities
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Title : In-Vitro Pharmacological Activity of Essential Oil –Linalool from Jasminum Polyantham
Authors : B. Rekha,C. Muthukumar, S.V. Bakiyalakshmi,G. Shakila

An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Linalool-is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications. In this present study the linalool was isolated from Jasminum polyanthum and its pharmacological activities such as Anti Spasmolytic and Anti inflammatory were analyzed by In vitro method. The Jasminum polyanthum and linolool possesses the anti spasmodic activity. The prevention value of inhibition or stimulation the Jasminum polyanthum and Linolool contains 50% and 65% of Activity. The Jasminum polyanthum shows 47.30% of anti inflammatory activity where as the Linolool shows high activity 70% respectively. From this study the isolated linalool essential oil possess the anti spasmodic activity which can be applied in pharmacy for the treatment of muscle problems and other related problems.

Keywords : Essential oil , Linalool , Jasminum polyanthum , Anti Spasmolytic and Anti inflammatory
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Title : Oxytocin A potential novel therapeutic agent in treatment of autism
Authors : Tarek Abdelaal,Mohamed Abbas

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by varying deficits in social interactions, communication, and learning, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Despite the significant increasing rates of ASD during the last two decades, there are few clues for its exact pathogenesis, delaying early detection and effective intervention. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. So far, there are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. During the past decade oxytocin (OT) research has shown a major upsurge. The beneficial roles of OT on social functioning raise the question regarding its potential usefulness in ASD management. If clinical application of OT in the treatment of ASD proves successful then it may introduce a new hope for afflicted individuals and their families. Fortunately pioneering clinical studies support this notion, however, more research should go on to resolve issues concerning clear mechanisms by which OT modulates social behavior before its real introduction for clinical application. Also probable adverse affects must be thoroughly investigated to ensure safe treatment outcomes.

Keywords : Autism , oxytocin , social behavior , mind reading , eye contact
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Title : Toxicity assessment of Aluminium on vermicomposting ability of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) on leaf litter
Authors : Annapoorani C.A

Vermicomposting technology is one of the best options available for the treatment of organics-rich solid wastes. In which earth worm converts biodegradable garbage into high quality manure and plays a key role in soil biology and they serve as versatile natural bioreactors to harness energy and destroy soil pathogens. The worms feed voraciously on all biodegradable wastes. There is an instance of chemical toxicity among non target organisms like earthworms etc, in agricultural lands due to pollution of chemical companies and factories. In the present investigation vermicomposting ability of earthworms Eudrilus eugeniae were measured experimentally by exposing in moist leaf litter with Aluminium. The morphological changes observed during the exposure of animals were observed in laboratory conditions and appears to impair the different stages of reproductive cycle of the worms thereby resulting in the onset of reduced vermicomposting ability of the earthworm.

Keywords : Eudrilus eugeniae , vermicomposting , toxicity , aluminium , exposure
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