Open Access Journals

Title : Study Of Medicinal Organisms Used By Tharu Ethnic Group (TEG) In Dekhatbhuli Area Of Kanchanpur District, Nepal
Authors : Suraj Prasad Joshi,Lata Pant,Balram Awasthi

This study tried to document the traditional medicinal organisms and their parts used by Tharu ethnic group (hereafter TEG) and we documented a total of 22 animal species including 20 families which they used in treating 25 different ailments among them 68.18% were wild species, 27.27% were domesticated and 4.55% belongs to other, and 103 plant species used in treating 86 different ailments among them 28 species were trees, 13 were shrubs, 51 were herbs and 11 were climber. Most of the animal species used belongs to class mammalian. The study revealed that 51 plants were used for treating of single ailment and remaining 52 species of plants were used for treating more than one ailment. In present exploration we proudly can say that TEG is very much rich from ethnobiological point of view. Data were collected through semi-structured open ended questionnaire survey, direct personal interviews with key informants (faith healers', they call them, Bharras and Guruwas) and through group discussions. Simple random sampling method was applied for the selection of respondents. The result showed that leaf is highly used in medicinal purposes among all other parts and is successively followed by the root and fruit.

Keywords : Tharu , Medicinal Ethnobiology , IK , Dekhatbhuli , Conservation.
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Title : Butea monosperma roxb. ex Willd Associated with Endophytic Fungal
Authors : Madhu Prakash Srivastava

Endophytic fungi are one of the most unexplored and diverse group of organisms that make symbiotic associations with higher life forms and are said to produce beneficial metabolites for host. So for only few plants have been screened for their endophyte biodiversity. Butea monosperma Roxb. ex willd. known as ‚Flame of forest‛ possess medicinal properties. A total of 200 segments from 20 different plant parts were screened for their endophytic mycoflora. Twenty one fungal species of Aspergillus (11%), Alternaria (9%), Chaetomiun (13%), Colletotrichium (8%), Fusarium (12%), Mucor (12%), Micrococus (10%), Penicillium (12%), Rhizopus (9%) and Verticillium (5%) were isolated. In this study the most dominant endophytic flora was found to be Chaetomium globosum (13%).

Keywords : Biodiversity , Endophytic fungi , Butea monosperma , Chetomium globosum , Medicinal plant
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Title : Therapeutic Uses of Mom Zard (Beeswax) in Unani System of Medicine - A Review
Authors : Shamim Khan,Qamrul Hasan Lari,Mahmood Ahmad Khan

Mom Zard (beeswax) is an animal source of origin medicine which is secreted by wax glands of honey bees. Since ancient periods Unani physicians have been using it as medicinal purpose orally as well as topically as a base of Qairooti (oil+beeswax), Zamad (paste) and Marham (ointment). Ibn-e-Sina (Avicenna) stated that Mom Zard has mainly talyeen (aperient), tahleel-e-auram (resolution of inflammations) and indemal (healing) properties. The effects of mom zard can be attributed to the presence of palmitate, palmitoleate and oleate esters and triacontanyl palmitateto cerotic acid. The aim of this paper is to highlight the pharmacological actions and therapeutic applications of the Mom Zard as per descriptions in Unani literatures.

Keywords : Mom Zard , Anti-inflammatory activity , Healing activity , Anti-hemorrhoid Activity
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Title : Gau dugdha (Cow Milk) - Its Nutritional and Therapeutic value
Authors : Baby Ganeriwala,K. S. Gudagnatti,U. B. Bolmal

Milk has very important and unique nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Milk is useful in all age groups, even in young age it is considered as a balance diet. Its therapeutic range is as broad as its nutritional value. Ayurveda has mentioned therapeutic value of dugdha in detail according to the color, age, habitat and food pattern of the cow which is not found in any other texts. Here some efforts are given to collect all facts about cow’s milk.

Keywords : Gau dugdha , balance diet , nutritional , therapeutic value
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Title : Hepatoprotective and histopathological Activity of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of stem of Aloe vera Linn (Ghee gangwar) against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats
Authors : Hena .,Pallavi Tiwari,Mayank Srivastava,Saurav Ghoshal

Aim of the study: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant widely distributed in the various parts of India. Aloe Vera is a major medicinal plant when it comes to treating and protecting the skin. Used externally, it is very effective on burns and sunburn, as well as a variety of skin diseases (eczema, pruritus, psoriasis, acne) – it is extremely constructive and protective. Root contains resinous matter and fat. It is used as Stomachic hepato-biliary affections etc. The present research was aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem using in vivo models to validate the folkloric use of the plant. Materials and methods: The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem were studied on male albino wistar rats, liver damage induced by paracetamol (2.5gm/kg, p.o.) by monitoring biochemical parameters. Various biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts in serum like glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP), total bilirubin (sB), total protein, total cholesterol and histopathological changes in liver were also studied along with silymarin (100mg/kg, p.o.) as standard hepatoprotective agents were determined to assess the effect of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem of Aloe vera (100 and 200 mg/kg) on the paracetamol induced hepatic damage. Results: The phytochemical investigation of the extracts showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, steroids and flavonoids. Pre-treatment of the rats with ethanol and aqueous extracts prior to paracetamol administration caused a significant reduction in the values of sGOT, sGPT, sALP and sB (P<0.01) almost comparable to the silymarin. The hepatoprotective was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animal.Conclusions: The results indicate that this plant possesses potential hepatoprotective properties and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of liver diseases.

Keywords : Aloe vera Linn. Paracetamol , hepatoprotective activity , silymarin , histopathology
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Title : Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of amlodipine and rosuvastatin
Authors : Sheetal Buddhadev,Raval Kashyap,Sandip Buddhadev

Fast Dissolving Tablets (FDT)) are most accepted and exploited for the drug delivery for the patients who are having difficulty with swallowing i.e., mainly pediatric's and Geriatric’s. Amlodipine besylate (ADB) is an anti-hypertensive and it is also used in many Coronary artery diseases, Whereas Rosuvastatin Calcium (RSC) is an anti-hyperlipidemia that prevents of Atheroma. The aim of the paper was to formulate a combined oral dosage form of amlodipine besylate and rosuvastatin calcium into fast dissolving tablet using three super disintegrants such as Croscarmellose Sodium (CCS), Cross povidone (CP), Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) at various concentrations to enhance the disintegration and dissolution of ADB and RSC to improve bioavailability of the drugs. The tablets were prepared by using direct compression method and evaluated for weight variations, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time and Dissolution study. Prepared tablets are subject to FT-IR Study for Characterization and compatibility study. No Chemical interaction between drug and excipients were indicated in the FT-IR. Disintegration and dissolution profiles decreases with addition of super disintegrating agents like Croscarmellose Sodium (CCS), Cross povidone (CP), Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG). Among all the formulation FD6 with CP in 10% and SSG 5% Concentration found to be best in drug release profile. The results showed that super disintegrants used in combinations shows better disintegrating property. Among all formulations, promising formulation FD6 showed good wetting time (26 sec), fastest disintegration time (55 sec) and maximum drug release of 99.89% within 5 minutes.

Keywords : Fast Dissolving Tablets Amlodipine besylate Rosuvastatin Calcium Super disintegrants Direct compression method
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Title : The Bioactive Compounds obtained from the Papaya (Carica papaya) act as Potential Anticancer agents against the Human Prostate cancer cell line DU-145
Authors : Asish Bhaumik,Swapna M,Sucharitha M,Devika K,Ashwini Kumari N

The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne.It consists of high content of zeaxthin, proteolytic enzymes like papain and chymo papain, vitmin K, β-carotene, other phytoconstituents like polyphenols, sugars, aromatic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids, phytosterols, starch and nutrients e. g P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Mg etc and had good health protective effects. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the anticancer activity of various extracts of fruit of Carica papaya against Human Prostate cancer cell line DU-145. DU-145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cell lines are the "classical" cell lines of prostatic cancer DU145 cells have moderate metastatic potential compared to PC3 cells which have high metastatic potential The DU145 cell line was derived from brain metastasis. SRB assay was used to analyze the cell growth inhibition. From the present studied it had been displayed that CFE, ELE and MLE, all were exhibiting the potential capability to kill the cancer cell when compared with standard drug 5-FU. The cell growth inhibition by various extracts of fruit of Carica papaya was varied due to the presence of varying concentration of bioactive compounds. CFE had displayed the highest cell growth inhibition (94.52 %) at 6.25 μg (IC 50 = 2.2 μg/ml) due to the presence of polyphenols (flavanoids), ELE with the 93.83% growth inhibition at 6.25 μg (IC 50 = 2.4 μg/ml) and MLE with the 92.80% % growth inhibition at 6.25 μg (IC 50 = 2.6 μg/ml).

Keywords : Zeaxthin , Phytoconstituents , DU-145 , Metastatic potential , SRB , IC 50
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Title : Exploration of Bioactive Screening against the Microbial Organisms from the two Different Chrysanthemum Medicnal plant Flower with two Assorted Extracts
Authors : S. Sujatha,Gowri Prakash,Vinayak k

Chrysanthemum plant is an ayurvedic important medicinal plant, and modern systems of medicine, flowers are the most important part in the field for preparation of various drugs. The present study aimed to focused objective was to study the two flower extracts with methanol and ethanol solvents and its antimicrobial activity both bacteria (Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas strains) and fungi (Candida species). When the C. indicum plant leaf extract treated with the experimental organisms of three strains Pseudomonas strains clearly showed that the maximum and minimum zone of inhibition was noticed on PA-38, 8±1.38 and PA- 37, 4±0.11. Similarly, ethanolic extract illustrated that the higher activity of this strain PA-39, 11±2.68 as well as PA-38, revealed the observed the value of 9±0.65 minimum effect on ethanolic extract. While, the C. cinerariaefolium ethanolic flower extract was treated with three different strains of Pseudomonas maximum similar zone of inhibition was noticed against PA-37 (10 ±2.75) and PA-38 (10 ±2.65). It was statistically significant as well as highest response when compared with Ciprofloxacin. Amoung the two plants C. indicum possessed excellent antimicrobial activity on both bacteria and fungi than the C. cinerariaefolium plant leaf. Subsequently the present research analyzed flower of the C. indicum plant by GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majority compounds. Totally 18 compounds were analyzed, amoung the 18 analytes camphor is an important peak compound also it contains 19.5 and 0.60% retention time and abundance respectively. Furthermore C. indicum possessed second most compound is Isoborneol, it was probably noticed 0.410% of abundance and its retention time is 17.5. Additionally two compounds also been observed as a sub peak level such as γ- Cadinene Methyl ester and Chrysanthenol. Hence, the current result clearly showed that the C. indicum plant flower is act as a very good potential antimicrobial agent.

Keywords : Chrysanthemum indicum (Linn.) Ethanol , Methanol , antimicrobial activity
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Title : Bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern isolated from urinary tract infection in a tertiary care centre
Authors : Deepti Chaurasia,Rakesh Kumar Shrivastava ,S. K. Shrivastava,Deepak Dubey,M. C. Songra

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) remains the most common bacterial infection in human population. The squealae of complicated UTIs are substantial. It is well established that in the presence of obstruction, calculus, Diabetes mellitus, and other risk factors, UTIs can lead to progressive renal damage. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial agents responsible for urinary tract infection and to evaluate their susceptibility pattern. Urine sample was cultured on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) media by calibrated loop technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby bauer disc diffusion method. Out of 320 samples, 155 samples revealed growth of one type of bacteria, and 15 showed growth of 2 types of bacteria. E. Coli was most common bacteria (115/185=62.16%) followed by other enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and a few gram positive cocci. Many bacteria were found to be multidrug resistant while most of gram negative bacteria were susceptible to Imipenem, and most of gram positive bacteria were susceptible to linezolid.

Keywords : Uropathogens , significant bacteriuria
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Title : Analysis of Trends in LSCS Rate and Indications of LSCS- A Study in a Medical College Hospital GMERS, Sola, Ahmedabad
Authors : nikhil anand,ajesh desai,vijay kansara,seema patel,riddhi patel,bhumika kagathra

Objectives: To analyze trends in the LSCS rate and to analyze the indications of LSCS in modern day practice. Place and duration: The study was carried out over a period of seven months (from June 2013 to December 2013) at GMERS medical college, sola, Ahmedabad. Methodology: Total no of patients delivered were counted and total no. of LSCS done was found. For the LSCS patients, parameters like elective or emergency, parity status, indications of LSCS, were noted and analyzed. Result: Frequency of LSCS in the study period was 25.18%. The indications of LSCS in order of frequency were previous one LSCS in 173 (42.09%) patients, followed by fetal distress in 45 (10.94%). failure to progress in 45 (10.94%),previous 2 LSCS in 28(6.81%),CPD and Breech in 26 cases(6.32%)each, mal-presentation & PIH in 8(1.94%) cases each, antepartum haemorrhage in 10 (2.43%). twin in 7 (1.7%) and oligoamnios and/or IUGR in 16(3.89%). Conclusion: LSCS rate is higher than advised by WHO and previous LSCS is the commonest indication followed by fetal distress. Obstetrical audit will help us a lot in reducing the rate.

Keywords : Caesarean rate , previous LSCS , indications
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