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Recent Articles

Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Diagnostic Tool in Pulmonary Tuberculosis



 The rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases that represent a public health problem, like tuberculosis, is a challenging problem. The sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) makes it a potential diagnostic test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in samples with low bacillary load. A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the efficiency of PCR as compared to other routine diagnostics like smear microscopy and culture, amongst sputum samples and blood samples. Total 250 blood and sputum samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS patients. Sputum samples were stained with ZN stain, then decontaminated and cultured on LJ medium (gold standard) and PCR, whereas blood samples were processed only for PCR. Out of 250 cases, 49 were AFB smear positive (19.6%), 56 (22.4%) culture positive and PCR from sputum was positive in 69 (27.6%). The overall sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay were 91.5% and 86.0% respectively and the positive and negative predictive values were 87.0% and 91.0% respectively. It also identified 13 smear negative and culture-negative cases as positive, whereas in case of blood sample (n=250), only 15 (6.0%) were PCR positive. The higher amount of TB positivity by PCR compared to culture & smear emphasize the role of PCR as a first line diagnostic tool in detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in sputum samples in HIV population as PCR is rapid, sensitive and cost effective compared to conventional diagnostic methods.

Screening of Soil Fungi for Α-amylase Activity



 α-Amylase is a significant enzymes employed in the starch processing industries for the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. It has a wide range of applications in many industries such as baking, brewing, wine and textile etc. Hundred filamentous fungi from various soil samples in the region of Lucknow city were isolated and screened for α-amylase synthesis. Excluding, Aspergillus nidulans (ANid-2) and Aspergillus terreus (ATer-2), all other α-amylase producing fungal strains were hyper active in the Starch Agar medium as compared to their growth in Potato Dextrose Agar medium. Species belonging to Fusarium and Trichoderma showed zero production of extra cellular α-amylase. On the other hand, out of 100, only 15 fungal strains of 2 genera viz. Aspergillus and Alternaria were found potent for α-amylase production, however, Aspergillus niger (ANig-4) strain was found highly efficient in the production of α-amylase. It is considered that Aspergillus niger (ANig-4) is a better option for the synthesis of α-amylase in the industrial sectors.

Intestinal Parasitic Infection in Hiv Infected Patients, Ahmedabad



 Opportunistic infections of the gastrointestinal tract have played a critical role in determining symptomatic illness in immuno compromised individuals. In recent years intestinal infections such as Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Isospora are becoming more prevalent in acquired immuno deficiency syndrome. Strongyloides stercoralis infections can lead to hyper infection syndrome and found to be lethal in immuno compromised patients the present study was under taken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV sero positive patients. Stool samples from 166 HIV infected patients with diarrhoea and 123 HIV infected patients without diarrhoea were examined for intestinal parasites by microscopy. Intestinal parasites were seen in 69.2% HIV patients with diarrhoea as compare to their presence in 30.08% HIV patients without diarrhoea.

Characterization of Physical Factors for Optimum Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus Terreus Klvb28mu21 Under Solid State Fermentation



 Lovastatin a hypocholesterolemic agent, competitively inhibits the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis 3-hydroxy-3-glutaryl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which catalyzes the reduction of HMG-CoA to mevalonate during cholesterol biosynthesis. We studied lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus KLVB28mu21 strain employing Solid State Fermentation of wheat bran. Highest yield (1110 g/gm of DW of substrate) of lovastatin was obtained at moisture content 65%, pH 5.5, temperature 300C, inoculum size 1×108 spores mL-1 and bed depth 2cm.

Screening for in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Solanum Americanum Miller



 The plant Solanum americanum Miller of family Solanaceae is traditionally used as a medicinal plant widely antiseptic cadalgia and gripe. Present study has tried to In vitro antimicrobial study (well diffusion method) of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Solanum americanum leaves were investigated individually. Four bacterial species (two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacterial species) and two fungal strains were used for study these are Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was found in methanol plant material extracts, followed by other extracts. Aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. While no extract showed anti bacterial activity against Candida albicans. The results of this study indicates that the leaf extract have more potential of antimicrobial activity and is concentration dependent.

Incidence and Antibiogram Patterns Among Nosocomial Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolates From Maternity Wards and Labor Rooms in Gulbarga Region, South India.



 Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial pathogen causing opportunistic infections in humans, particularly among immuno compromised patients, and because of its ubiquitous nature, ability to survive in adverse conditions and affinity for moist environment remains a common pathogen in intensive care units (ICU). In the present study, prevalence rate of P. aeruginosa in maternity wards and labor rooms in various hospitals of Gulbarga region, South India and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern (AST) are reported. Present study was based on the 190 samples collected from animate and inanimate objects from maternity wards and labor rooms of several hospitals in Gulbarga region, during Oct 2008 to Jan 2010. A total of 43 P. aeruginosa were isolated, indicating on isolation rate of 22.63% and the isolation rate was slightly higher in maternity wards than the labor rooms. There is an increased multidrug resistance among P. aeruginosa which may be due to the selective pressure from the use of antimicrobial agents which is a major determinant for the convergence of resistant strains, especially in hospital environments.

Application of Camera Phone Technology in Capturing Microscopic Images



 Light microscopy provides a simple, cost-effective and vital method for the diagnosis of many diseases and infections used in both pathology and microbiology laboratories. Recently use of mobile phone has become very common and many mobile phones are equipped with cameras with good resolution. Present paper explores camera phone technology can be applied to capture and transmit the images directly from the eyepiece of an ordinary laboratory microscope. A simple method to capture the digital images of the laboratory slides of microbilogical objects by using camera phone in microscope was designed and discussed.. 

Homoeopathy a Resonable Alternative for Treatment of Fungal Prostatitis – A Case Report



 Present paper reports a case of fungal prostatitis which has perfectly been cured with homoeopathic drugs. Diagnosis is based on fungal culture of prostate fluid before and after treatment. Present case added to literature, suggesting that clinicians need to consider fungal infections in patients who fail standard therapy for prostatitis, either as a primary causative organism or as secondary agents induced by broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Homeopathic drugs are potentially alternative to treat fungal prostatitis.

Awarness and Beliefs of College Students in Nagpur : Aids Factor



 To assess the awareness , attitudes and beliefs of the students towards HIV/AIDS an observational study was carried out in college students in Nagpur city ( Central India).They were asked to fill up the pre designed questioner. The knowledge regarding etiology, modes of transmission and prevention was assessed. Total 452 students participated from different colleges. Most of the students were aware of AIDS as a disease since it is included in school syllabus. But only 66.81% could give the full form of AIDS and 44.69% knew full form of HIV. Still it was encouraging to observe that 84.95 % students knew that causative agent is a virus. 87.61 % stated that HIV could be Transmitted from mother to baby . Still today 18.14% persons think that just by looking at someone we can tell whether he has HIV infection or not. Majority were aware that ( 86.72%) till today there is no effective cure for AIDS . Information, education and communication are the major step in HIV prevention. Result of this study clearly stress the need for health education and AIDS awareness programmes for population in general and high risk groups in particular. 

Dark Ground Microscopy Using Conventional Light Microscope –A Simple and Inexpensive Method



 Light microscopy is routinely used to study the biological specimens in various institutions. Examination of low contrast structures need special condensers as in phase contrast or dark ground microscope which are quite expensive. A conventional light microscpoe can be converted into a dark ground microscope by putting a simple patch stop in path of light source . The technique discribed here is simple and inexpensive method of making a light occluding patch stop made up of cardboard or simply a black paper patch pasted over a piece of trasparant sheet like OHP transparancy which can be placed in filter holder, thus converting light microscope into dark ground microscope; very useful in examination of low contrast specimens.